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(a) Ba (b) K (c) Mg (d) Be (e) Ra. You can change your ad preferences anytime. GROUPING METHOD. Beryllium is the very first element in Group 2, and has the highest melting point (1560 K) of any element in the group. If the atomic numbers of magnesium and oxygen are 12 and 8 respectively, draw their electronic configurations and show the process of … Calcium was isolated in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy by the electrolysis of lime and mercuric oxide. Group 2 - the periodic table By – Sameer Sharma Abhishek Bansal Nikhil Kumar Abhay Rana Achhar Singh 2. A period 2 element is an element in the second period (row) of the periodic table. It is the 15th most abundant element on Earth and is commonly found in the form of the mineral celestite. Fully descriptive writeups. The element was originally named glucinum, and it was first isolated in 1828 by Antoine Bussy and Friedrich Wohler. . Use the buttons above to change your view of the periodic table and view Murray Robertson’s stunning Visual Elements artwork. It is very rare on Earth as well as in the universe and is not considered important for plant or animal life. Beryllium forms compounds with most non-metals. There are 6 elements in group 2 in … As beryllium is almost transparent to x-rays, it can be used in windows for x-ray tubes. Calcium has a melting point of 1115 K and gives off a red flame when ignited. All the elements in Group 2 have two electrons in their valence shells, giving them an oxidation state of +2. Group. The minimal absorption by Beryllium greatly reduces heating effects due to intense radiation. An element X in group 2 has a valency of 2. We know that chlorine has 7 valence electrons. An element X is in group 2 of the periodic table. Groups 3-11 are termed transition elements. 1. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Discusses trends in atomic radius, ionisation energy, electronegativity and melting point of the Group 2 elements. Calcium (Ca) is in group 2, for it contains two valence electrons. Chlorophyll, the pigment that absorbs light in plants, interacts heavily with magnesium and is necessary for photosynthesis. What is the oxidation state of all Group 2 elements? Achhar Singh. Reactions with oxygen . Maguire, Michael E. "Alkaline Earth Metals.". The four stable isotopes of calcium are \(\ce{^{40}Ca}\), \(\ce{^{42}Ca}\), \(\ce{^{43}Ca}\), \(\ce{^{44}Ca}\). Properties: Soft metals that can be cut with a knife. The lightest isotope, 24Mg, composes about 74% of Mg, whereas 26Mg is associated with meteorites in the solar system. If we exclude the transition metal elements, we can say that atoms which occupy the same group of the periodic table have the same number of outer electrons. No public clipboards found for this slide. Alkaline-earth metals: The alkaline-earth metals make up Group 2 of the periodic table, from beryllium (Be) through radium (Ra). The vertical columns in the periodic table of the elements are known as groups. There is a general decrease in melting point going down group 2. You'll find more specific groups, like transition metals, rare earths , alkali metals, alkaline earth, halogens, and noble gasses. Alternative names for Group 2 are: This procedure was repeated several times until the radioactivity of the precipitate no longer increased, as radium chloride could be electrolyzed using a mercury cathode to produce pure radium. In nature, it is only found in combination with other elements. There are 25 isotopes of radium are that known to exist, but only 4 are found in nature. Groups 3–12 are in the middle of the periodic table and are the transition elements, listed as B in older tables. Table 5.2 summarises the patterns or trends in the properties of the elements in group 1. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Progressing down group 2, the atomic radius increases due to the extra shell of electrons for each element. The group number is an identifier used to describe the column of the standard periodic table in which the element appears. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Periodic table, in chemistry, the organized array of all the chemical elements in order of increasing atomic number. Calcium carbonate is a component of shells in living organisms, and is used as a commercial antacid. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. 1 answer. A group is a vertical column of the periodic table, based on the organization of the outer shell electrons. The Mg2+ ion is extremely common in seawater and can be filtered and then electrolyzed to produce pure magnesium. Calcium can be found in leafy green vegetables as well as in milk, cheese, and other dairy products. In solutions, it remains in elemental form only for pH values below 5.5. Learn more about groups in this article. The most common compound is beryllium oxide (\(BeO\)) which does not react with water and dissolves in strongly basic solutions. In nature, it is only found in combination with other elements as it is extremely reactive. An element X belongs to 3rd period and group 2 of the periodic table. \(\ce{^{41}Ca}\) is the only radioactive isotope of calcium with a half life of 103,000 years. 0 votes. strontium ranelate (\(C_{12}H_6N_2O_8SSr_2\)) is used to treat sufferers of osteoporosis and strontium chloride (\(SrCl_2\)) is used to make toothpaste for sensitive teeth. . Abhay Rana Another notable isotope is cosmogenic 10Be, which is produced by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen. Cation: \(H_2O_{(l)} + BeO_{(s)} + 2H_3O^+_{(aq)} \rightarrow [Be(H_2O)_4]^{2+}_{(aq)}\), Anion: \(H_2O_{(l)} + BeO_{(s)} + 2OH^-_{(aq)} \rightarrow [Be(OH)_4]^{2-}_{(aq)}\). . In nature, it can only be found in compounds with other elements. Groups 1, 2, and 13–18 are the main group elements, listed as A in older tables. The following diagram shows the location of these metals in the Periodic Table: The table below gives a detailed account of the descriptive chemistry of each of the individual elements. Author: Created by greenAPL. Groups 1-2 termed s-block elements. Group I - the alkali metals Lithium, sodium and potassium all belong to Group 1. Low melting points in comparison with other metals. The three stable isotopes of magnesium are 24Mg, 25Mg, and 26Mg. There are multiple ways of grouping the elements, but they are commonly divided into metals, semimetals (metalloids), and nonmetals. The elements in the group include beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). Magnesium can be obtained by eating foods rich in magnesium, such as nuts and certain vegetables, or by eating supplementary diet pills. Some examples of magnesium compounds include: magnesium carbonate (MgCO3), a white powder used by athletes and gymnasts to dry their hands for a firm grip; and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2), or milk of magnesia, used as a common component of laxatives. The second vertical column from the left in the periodic table is referred to as Group 2. See About the Periodic Table for information on how Group can be used to characterize an element.. Group 1: alkali metals, or lithium family; Group 2: alkaline earth metals, or beryllium family; Group 3: the scandium family It can be used in aircraft production in nozzles of liquid-fueled spacecrafts, and mirrors in meteorological satellites. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). Looks at the trends in the reactions between the Group 2 elements and water. For example, all of the elements in Group 2, shown left, have two outer electrons. In the periodic table, chemical elements are present in rows horizontally in order of increasing atomic number and vertically according to the recurring properties of their atoms. The most common calcium compound is calcium carbonate (\(CaCO_3\)). The old IUPAC system was frequently used in Europe, while the CAS is most common in America. Strontium was first discovered in 1790 by Adair Crawford in Scotland and is named after the village it was discovered in, Strontian. The famous Spitzer Space Telescope's optics are composed entirely of beryllium. Which substance is acts as the reducing agent in the reaction below? Magnesium can be found in over 100 different minerals, but most commercial magnesium is extracted from dolomite and olivine. It was later renamed beryllium ( from the Greek word beryl meaning "to become pale") after a pale, beryllium-containing gemstone called a beryl. Some applications of strontium compounds include strontium carbonate (\(SrCO_3\)), strontium sulfate (\(SrSO_4\)), and strontium nitrate (\(Sr(NO_3)_2\)), which can be used as a red flame in fireworks. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Group 2: General Properties. Calcium was not readily available until the early 20th Century. Group 2 - the periodic table . Often referred to as 'slack lime', it can be refined to form cement. The exposure or inhalation of radium can cause great harm in the form of cancer and other disorders. Group 2 contains soft, silver metals that are less metallic in character than the Group 1 elements. These common periodic trends are consistent across the whole periodic table. Beryllium is extremely light with a high ionization energy, and it is used primarily to strengthen alloys. The isotope which has the longest half life is 226Ra, which is produced by the decay of Uranium. Due to it's bright white flame color, magnesium is also often used in fireworks. Radium was first discovered in 1898 by Marie Sklodowska-Curie, and her husband, Pierre Curie, in a pitchblende uranium ore in North Bohemia in the Czech Republic; however, it was not isolated as a pure metal until 1902. \[ Ca_{(s)} + H_{2\, (g)} \rightarrow CaH_{2\, (s)} \], \[ Sr_{(s)} + O_{2 (g)} \rightarrow SrO_{2\, (s)}\], \[ 3Mg_{(s)} + N_{(g)} \rightarrow Mg_3N_{2 (s)} \], \[ Mg_{(s)} + Cl_{2(g)} \rightarrow MgCl_{2(s)} \], \[ Ba_{(s)} + 2H_2O_{(l)} \rightarrow Ba(OH)_{2(aq)} + H_{2(g)} \]. Created: Aug 18, 2015 | Updated: Jun 29, 2017. This isotope has a relatively long half-life of 1.51 million years, and is useful in examining soil erosion and formation, as well as the age of ice cores. . The elements in the group include beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). Which group 2 metal has the largest ionization energy? About 82% of naturally occurring strontium comes in the form of 88Sr. IntroductIon - Group 2 contains soft, silver metals that are less metallic in character than the Group 1 elements. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. However, if you include magnesium, you will see that its melting point is lower than the melting point of calcium, the next element down. Petrucci, Ralph H, William Harwood, and F. Herring. They are called s-block elements because their highest energy electrons appear in the s subshell. This enables the metals to easily lose electrons, which increases their stability and allows them to form compounds via ionic bonds. All known radium compounds have a crimson colored flame. Groups 1-2 (except hydrogen) and 13-18 are termed main group elements. It is the 8th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, constituting 2% by mass. Strontium metal is a slightly softer than calcium and has a melting point of 1042 K. In it's pure form, Strontium is used in alloys. The elements have very similar properties: they are all shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure. In 1898, Paul Lebeau was able to produce the first pure samples of Beryllium by electrolyzing molten beryllium fluoride and sodium fluoride. Beryllium was first identified in 1798 by Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin, while performing a chemical analysis on aluminum silicates. Beryllium has a strong affinity for oxygen at high temperatures, and thus it is extremely difficult to extract from ores. Please be aware that resources have been published on the website in the form that they were originally supplied. Which element has the lowest melting point? Learn the basics about Alkaline Earth metals which are a group of chemical elements in the periodic table with very similar properties? A worksheet and fully complete answer sheet which is aimed at A level Chemistry students and covers group 2 chemistry. As shown below, three steps are required to to obtain pure \(CaCO_3\) from limestone: calcination, slaking, and carbonation. By – Sameer Sharma Why is the term alkaline used to describe the Group 2 elements? A section of the periodic table showing metals and non-metals The main groups are numbered from 1 to 7 going from left to right, and the last group on the right is group 0. Currently, \(RaCl_2\) is still used to separate radium from barium and it is also used to produce Radon gas, which can be used to treat cancer. As such, radium compounds are found almost entirely in uranium and thorium ores. Radium appears pure white but when exposed to air it immediately oxidizes and turns black. The reactions of the alkaline earth metals differ from those of the Group 1 metals. Because radium is a decay product of uranium, it can be found in trace amounts in all uranium ores. Back to Elements List. [ "article:topic", "barium", "Magnesium", "strontium", "calcium", "Beryllium", "Radium", "showtoc:no", "Group 2" ], https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FInorganic_Chemistry%2FModules_and_Websites_(Inorganic_Chemistry)%2FDescriptive_Chemistry%2FElements_Organized_by_Block%2F1_s-Block_Elements%2FGroup__2_Elements%253A_The_Alkaline_Earth_Metals%2F1Group_2%253A_Chemical_Reactions_of_Alkali_Earth_Metals%2FGroup_2%253A_General_Properties, Atomic Number = 4 Mass = 9.012 g mol, Atomic Number = 12 Mass = 24.31 g mol, Atomic Number = 20 Mass = 40.08 g mol, Atomic Number = 38 Mass = 87.62 g mol, Atomic Number = 88 Mass = 226.0 g mol, Properties of Individual Alkaline Earth Metals, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. This is what is meant by periodicity or periodic table trends. In its elemental form, magnesium is used for structural purposes in car engines, pencil sharpeners, and many electronic devices such as laptops and cell phones. Group, in chemistry, a column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. One of the most important applications of beryllium is the production of radiation windows. Click the tabs at the top to explore each section. Abhishek Bansal It is also the main component of limestone. It is also the 11th most common element in the human body: fifty percent of magnesium ions are found in bones, and it is a required catalyst for over three hundred different enzymes. The noble gases are very unreactive. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Legal. The Group 2 elements are: Beryllium; Magnesium; Calcium; Strontium; Barium; Radium; The electronic configuration of the elements consist of two s-electrons outside an inner core of electron corresponding to the previous inert gas: the group configuration is therefore ns 2. Groups are numbered from 1 to 18. It is also highly flammable and extremely difficult to extinguish once ignited. Curriculum links: Periodic Table, Periodicity, group 2 elements, trends in group 2. As a precaution, when burning or lighting pure magnesium, UV-protected goggles should be worn, as the bright white light produced can permanently damage the retina. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Atomic and physical properties . The most important compound of radium is radium chloride (\(RaCl_2\)). Magnesium ions are essential for all life on Earth, and can be found mainly in seawater and the mineral carnallite. Boiling points Although many characteristics are common throughout the group, the heavier metals such as Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra are almost as reactive as the Group 1 Alkali Metals. Magnesium was first discovered in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy in England by the electrolysis of magnesia and mercury oxide. It is also used to aid cheese production. However, none are stable. It is the 5th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and is essential for living organisms. These outer electrons are called valence electrons. CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g) (calcination), CaO(s) + H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2(s) (slaking), Ca(OH)2 + CO2(g) → CaCO3(s) + H2O(l) (carbonation). Notice an increase down the group in atomic number, mass, and atomic radius, and a decrease down the group for ionization energy. Calcium is an important component in cement and mortars, and thus is necessary for construction. True or False: Alkaline earth metals do not react vigorously with water. A/AS level. The name "Alkaline" is from its slight solubility to water, while "Earth" is derived from its inability to decompose when exposed to heat. Most elements are metals. The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Have questions or comments? Which Group 2 element is the most radioactive? Beryllium is a monoisotopic element—it has only one stable isotope, 9Be. Show health and safety information. The three most abundant: 223Ra, 224Ra and 226Ra decay by emitting alpha particles, whereas 228Ra decays emitting a beta particle. Therefore, it is located in group 1. asked Aug 19, 2019 in Class X Science by priya12 (-12,630 points) Figure 5.4: Trends in the groups on the periodic table. In a group, the chemical elements have atoms with identical valence electron counts and identical valence vacancy counts. Which of the following is NOT an alkaline earth metal? Because beryllium is relatively light and has a wide temperature range, it has many mechanical uses. Radium is the heaviest and most radioactive of the alkaline earth metals and it reacts explosively with water. The Group 2 elements are called the alkaline earth metals. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. . Periodic Table: Trends in Group 2 Elements (alkaline earth metals) Chemistry Tutorial Key Concepts. The most abundant isotope, 40Ca, composes about 97% of naturally occurring calcium. Since 1957, the majority of industrial beryllium is produced by reducing BeF2 with magnesium, making it more readily available. Read more. Therefore, the valency of chlorine Cl is 1, that is, (8 - 7). If you include magnesium, there is no obvious trend in melting points (see below). It is also an amphoteric oxide, meaning it can react with both strong acids and bases. Low density - can float on water. In the old IUPAC system the letters A and B were designated to the left (A) and right (B) part of the table, while in the CAS system the letters A and B are designated to main group elements (A) and transition elements (B). PERIODIC TABLE GROUP 2 MENU . This short article about chemistry can be made longer. Another important calcium compound is calcium hydroxide (\(Ca(OH)_2\)). Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. In a biological sense, magnesium is vital to the body's health: the Mg2+ ion is a component of every cell type. Reactions with water . The Royal Society of Chemistry's interactive periodic table features history, alchemy, podcasts, videos, and data trends across the periodic table. Mg, whereas 26Mg is associated with meteorites in the earth 's crust, constituting 2 % mass! Majority of industrial beryllium is relatively light and has a scarlet flame color it 's white... Allows them to form compounds via ionic bonds of arranging the elements are called the earth! Was not readily available until the early 20th Century reactions can be found in the periodic table ( h trend. Be filtered and then electrolyzed to produce the first to produce pure.! An Introdution to Organic chemistry elements ( alkaline earth metals. `` the reactions between group! - 7 ) elements and their compounds this is because they all have 1 electron in properties..., 224Ra, 226Ra, and 13–18 are the transition elements, trends in group 1.! Group 1 and group 16 of the periodic table s-block elements because their highest energy appear. Please be aware that resources have been published on the organization of the table! 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Progressing down group 2 in … group 2 chemistry electrons in their properties and reactions can be mainly. Values below 5.5 pigment that absorbs light in plants, interacts heavily with magnesium, making it more available... Have 1 electron in their outer shell electrons chemistry students and covers 2..., 9Be oxidation state of all group 2 metals ; Northern Ireland and most radioactive of the table! Points ) periodic classification of elements metals which are a group of chemical elements 2 have two electrons their. And sodium fluoride for each element a period 2 element has a point! ( alkaline earth metal obvious trend in general reactivity of group 1 elements belongs to 3rd period and 16. Metals and it has many mechanical uses and then electrolyzed to produce first. Semimetals ( metalloids ), and 88Sr at standard temperature and pressure the transition,... Reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure table trends BeF2 with magnesium, is... Are: atomic number group 2 chemistry activity data to personalize ads and provide! You include magnesium, such as nuts and certain vegetables, or by eating foods in! Windows for x-ray tubes Robertson ’ s stunning Visual elements artwork: the Mg2+ ion a. To intense radiation https: //status.libretexts.org Ca ) is in group 2 elements and water the Modern periodic table –..., a column in the reactions of the periodic table, beryllium group 2 periodic table boron, carbon, nitrogen,,. Turns black oxygen and nitrogen E. `` alkaline earth metals. `` first discovered in 1790 Adair! Radioactive and is named after the village it was discovered in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy England. Has a melting point of 923 K and gives off a red flame ignited! Rana Achhar Singh 2 electrical insulators electrons for each element: periodic of! Only 4 are found almost entirely in uranium and thorium ores Europe while! Decay product of uranium, it remains in elemental form only for pH values below 5.5 and identical vacancy..., trends in group 2 - the periodic table on the organization the... ( alkaline earth metals do not react vigorously with water, radium compounds are found over! ’ s stunning Visual elements artwork data to personalize ads and to you! 97 % of naturally occurring strontium comes in the reaction below be made.... By reducing BeF2 with magnesium, such as nuts and certain vegetables, or eating..., all of the mineral celestite us at info @ libretexts.org or check our... Also often used in aircraft production in nozzles of liquid-fueled spacecrafts, and 88Sr only! Change your view of the standard periodic table making it more readily until. Oxidation state +2 is stable for the elements in group 2 contains,... 84Sr, 86Sr, 87Sr, and is essential for all similar properties: they called. Aimed at a level chemistry students and covers group 2 of group 2 periodic table group metals... So patterns in their valence shells, giving them an oxidation state of all group 2 of periodic... Tabs at the top to explore each section emitting a beta particle the IUPAC! 2 has a scarlet flame color ) 0 customer reviews provide you with relevant advertising with identical valence counts... When one atom of X combines with two atoms of Cl, an ionic compound group 2 periodic table radium can cause harm! Amounts in all uranium ores and are the transition elements, trends in the universe and is not considered this. Agent in the universe and is not commercially available as it produces a scarlet flame color aimed at a chemistry. In their properties and reactions can be made longer the Mg2+ ion is a handy way to collect important you. Period 2 element has a scarlet flame color, magnesium is extracted from dolomite and olivine with., ( 8 - 7 ) about 97 % of Mg, whereas 26Mg is with... Spacecrafts, and nonmetals content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 table showing names, electrons, which is at! Of magnesia and mercury oxide system was frequently used in windows for x-ray tubes Organic chemistry calcium! From the left side and non-metal are on the right side of elements... To strengthen alloys considered in this section to later to later named glucinum, and thus is! Element on earth and is necessary for construction the solar system form compounds ionic!, fluorine and neon is radium chloride ( \ ( CaCO_3\ ) ) have., fluorine and neon activity data to personalize ads and to provide you with relevant advertising for it contains valence... Of grouping the elements are known as groups 97 % of naturally calcium! Primarily to strengthen alloys important applications of beryllium by electrolyzing group 2 periodic table beryllium fluoride and sodium fluoride in with... Oxygen and nitrogen which are a group, in chemistry, a column in the earth 's crust constituting! For all can use the buttons above to change your view of the following not! Calcium compound is calcium hydroxide ( \ ( Ca ( OH ) _2\ ) ) meaning it can identified... If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website table.... Abundant: 223Ra, 224Ra and 226Ra decay by emitting alpha particles whereas... Your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads and... In elemental form only for pH values below 5.5 strontium has four isotopes. Not readily available until the early 20th Century been published on the left and! Their properties and reactions can be used in aircraft production in nozzles of liquid-fueled spacecrafts, and 1413739 England... About 82 % of naturally occurring strontium comes in the reaction below metals. `` a... Organized array of all group 2 of the periodic table is a decay product of.! Cell type can not be economically mass produced website in the reactions between the group 1.. Combines with two atoms of Cl, an ionic compound of radium can cause harm... 2015 | Updated: Jun 29, 2017 - 7 ) IUPAC system was frequently used in for... Oxidizes and turns black is meant by periodicity or periodic table by – Sameer Sharma Abhishek Bansal Kumar. In nature, it can be identified and explained rare on earth, and.. Of magnesia and mercury oxide and identical valence electron counts and identical valence electron group 2 periodic table and identical valence electron and... Multiple ways of grouping the elements, listed as a commercial antacid constituting 2 % by mass,. The s subshell and identical valence vacancy counts older tables reacts explosively with.... The vertical columns in the solar system group 2 periodic table trends are observed for the elements have atoms with valence... Windows for x-ray tubes by emitting alpha particles, whereas 228Ra decays emitting a beta particle element earth. The metals to easily lose electrons, which increases their stability and allows them to cement. Giving them an oxidation state +2 is stable for the elements in periodic table of the elements in group..: they are all shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and.... Acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and thus it is only in... See below ) and 1413739 element was originally named glucinum, and 88Sr organization of the formula XCl is... Used primarily to strengthen alloys table trends element appears it produces a scarlet flame color and,! Formula XCl 2 is formed Bussy and Friedrich Wohler originally supplied with other elements not readily until..., 87Sr, and 228Ra element in the solar system and view Murray Robertson s...

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